Volume 4, Issue 6, November 2019, Page: 86-93
Maruca vitrata (Fab.) [Lepidoptera: Pyralidae] Damage on Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) in Katsina, Sudan Savanna, Nigeria: The Role of IPM
Abdulhadi Muhammad, Department of Crop Production and Protection, Federal University Dutsin-ma, Dutsin-ma, Nigeria
Anna Mohammed Malgwi, Department of Crop Protection, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria
Hycenth Nahunnaro, Department of Crop Protection, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria
Received: Jun. 16, 2019;       Accepted: Jul. 8, 2019;       Published: Dec. 30, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.bmb.20190406.12      View  479      Downloads  103
A combination of intra-row spacings, sowing dates, and pesticides on cowpea damage and control caused by M. vitrata was carried out towards developing an integrated pest management of M. vitrata on cowpea. The experiment was laid out in split-split plot design. Intra-row spacing and sowing dates were respectively allocated to the main and sub-plot while pesticides were allocated to the sub-sub-plot. The treatments were randomized and replicated three times. Data collected were subjected to the analysis of variance and means were separated using LSD at 5%. The result showed that varying intra-row spacings did not have any significant effect (P>0.05) on cowpea flower damage by M. vitrata at 10 WAS in all the years and the combine except in 2016. Close spacing was observed to record the least flower damage. Early sowing was observed to significantly (P<0.05) recorded the highest percentage flower damage in all the years and the combine (22.95, 22.78 and 22.85). Pesticide treated plots (13.06, 13.06 and 11.67) significantly (P<0.05) recorded the least percentage flower damage compared with the control plots (26.30). The effect of pesticides was statistically similar, however plots treated with Cyper diforce during recorded the least percentage flower damage. There was no significant difference on the effect of varying intra-row spacing on percentage cowpea pod damaged by M. vitrata 10 WAS. However, delay in sowing to SD3 significantly recorded least percentage pod damage (4.89, 14.03 and 2.94) than early sowing SD1 (24.47, 30.14 and 12.74) which recorded the highest. The effect of pesticides showed that plots treated with MaviMNPV significantly (P<0.05) recorded the least percentage damage (6.69) compared with the control (13.08). However, treatments effects were statistically similar. The effect of varying sowing dates showed that sowing cowpea at SD3 significantly (P<0.05) reduce dried cowpea pod damage at harvest (5.55% and 6.81%) than early sowing SD1 (12.85% and 10.61%) during 2016 and the combine respectively. It is therefore recommended that varying sowing date and use of Cyper diforce reduce cowpea damage in the study area and is hereby recommended.
Maruca vitrata, Damage, Cowpea, Bio-pesticide and Integrated Pest Management
To cite this article
Abdulhadi Muhammad, Anna Mohammed Malgwi, Hycenth Nahunnaro, Maruca vitrata (Fab.) [Lepidoptera: Pyralidae] Damage on Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) in Katsina, Sudan Savanna, Nigeria: The Role of IPM, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2019, pp. 86-93. doi: 10.11648/j.bmb.20190406.12
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Kwaifa, N. M.; Ibrahim, N. D.; Dike, M. C., Abubakar, M. G. 2012. Bioefficacy of neemand mahogany extracts for control of cowpea flower Thrips, Megaluthrips sjostedti Trybom [Thysanoptera: Thripididae] and Grasshopper, Ailopus simulatrix Walker [Orthoptera: Pyrogomophidae] in sudan savannah, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Entomology, 29: 31-42.
Ajeigbe, H. A.; Adamu, R. S.; Singh, B. B. 2012. Yield performance of cowpea as influenced by insecticidetypes and their combinations in the dry savannas of Nigeria. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 7 (44): 5930-5938. Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJAR DOI: 10.5897/AJAR12.431.
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) 2009. Cowpea, Vignaunguiculata. CGIAR. www.iita.org. Accessed 15/04/2014.
African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) 2011. Pod-borer Resistant Cowpea Project, www.aatf-africa, retrieved 18/01/2014.
Ahmed, B. I.; Onu, I.; Mudi, L. 2009. Field bioefficacy of plant extracts for the control of post flowering insect pests of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. in Nigeria. Journal of Biopesticides, 2 (1): 37-43.
African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) 2014. Pod-borer resistant cowpea project partnership-developing a pod-borer resistant cowpea. www.aatf-africa.org.
Agunbiade, T. A.; Coates, B. S.; Kim, K. S.; Forgacs, D.; Margam, V. M.; Murdock, L. L.; et al. 2012. The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod-borer, MarucavitrataF. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations in West Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 1-11.
Ogah, E. O. 2013. Field evaluation of plant extracts in the management of Megalurothrips sjostedti and Maruca vitrata of cowpea in southeastern Nigeria. World Essays Journal, 1 (1): 11-17. Available online at www. worldessaysj.com.
Oyewale, R. O.; Bamaiyi, L. J.; Oparaeke, A. M.; Adamu, R. S. 2014. Evaluation of four insecticide formulations for the management of insect pests of cowpea. African Journal of Food Science and Technology, 5 (8): 180-188. DOI: http:/dx.doi.org/10.14303/ajfst.2014.101. Retrieved on13/07/2016.
Lambot, C. 2002. Industrial potential of cowpea. Agriculture raw material, Nestle Research Center, Abidjan, Côte d'voire. pp. 367-375.
Nabirye, J.; Nampala, P.; Ogenga-Latigo, M. W.; Kyamanywa, S.; Wilson, H.; Odeke, V.; Iceduna, C.; Adipala, E. 2003. Farmer-participatory evaluation of cowpea integrated pest management (IPM) technologies in Eastern Uganda. Crop Science, 22: 31-38.
Asante, S. K.; Tamo, M.; Jackai, L. E. N. 2001. Integrated management of cowpea insect pests using elite cultivars, date of planting and minimum insecticide application. African Crop Science Journal, 9 (4): 655-665.
Karungi, J., Nampala, M. P., Adipale, E. S., Kyamanywa and Ogenga, Latigo, M. W. (1999). Intra-row dynamics of selected cowpea insect pest as influenced by different management practices in Eastern Uganda. African Crop Science Journal. 7 (4), 487-495.
Aliyu, M.; Ladan, T.; Ahmed, B. I.; Abdullahi, J. 2007. Studies on the efficacy of black soap and kerosene on the control of pod sucking bugs (Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stal.) on Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Emirate Journal Food Agriculture, 19 (2): 08-12.
Degri, M. M.; Maina, Y. T.; Richard, B. I. 2012. Effect of plant extracts on post flowering insect pests and grain yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) (L.) Walp.) in Maiduguri, semi arid zone of Nigeria. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 2 (3): 46-51. ISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online).
Ahmed, B. I.; Ansari, M. A.; Shah, F. A.; Butt, T. M. 2010. Mass production of the insect-pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes), on different cereal grains. Nigerian Journal of Entomology, 27: 75-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03235400701390463.
Tamo, M.; Srinivasan, R. 2012. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research-Systemwide Program on integrated pest management (CGIAR SP-IPM), biological control: new cure for an old problem, technical innovation brief No. 8. August, 2012. IPM Secretariat, Cotonou, Benin Republic. 2PP. www.spipm.cgiar.org. Retrieved on 15/02/2014.
Ibrahim, Y. E.; Sani, L. I. 2012. The role of information dissemination in attaining food security in Katsina State, Nigeria. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal) 826. 1-5
Population Commission (NPC) (2006). National Population Census 2006 data, National Population Commission, Abuja, Nigeria.
MOANR, 2013. Agriculture in Katsina State an overview, a publication of Katsina State Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Lamp Printing Press, 21pp.
Neem Foundation 2005. Spreading the neem revolution. an informal compilation of some of the investigations and developments done on Neem in the recent pasts. Neem Foundation. www.neemfoundation.org/invest.htm.Retrieved on 07/01/2005.
Oparaeke, A. M.; Dike, M. C.; Amatobi, C. I. 2005. Evaluation of Botanical Mixtures for Insect Pests Management on Cowpea Plants. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics, 106 (1): 41–48.
Oparaeke, A. M. 2006. Effect of aqueous extract of tropical plants for management of MarucavitrataFab. And Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stal. on cowpea, Vignaunguiculata (L.) Walp. plants. Journal of Entomology, 3 (1): 70-75.
Oparaeke, A. M.; Dike, M. C.; Amotobi, C. I. 2006. Field evaluation of an extract of five Nigerian species for control of post-flowering pests of cowpea, Vignaunguiculata (L.) Walp. Plant Protection Sciences, 41: 14-20.
Alghali, A. M. 1993. Intercropping as a component in insect pest management for grain cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (Walp) production in Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 14 (1): 50-52.
Wudil, B. S., Ahmed, B. I. and Yusuf, S. R. (2013). Field evaluation of two essential oils and a synthetic insecticide for the control of some major insect pests of Cowpea (Vignaunguiculata (L.) Walp in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Entomology. 30, 114-135.
Amatobi, C. I. 1994. Field evaluation of some insecticides for the control of insect pest of Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. in Sudan Savanna of Nigeria. International Journal of Pest Management, 40: 13-17.
Oghiakhe, S.; Jackai, L. E. N.; Makanjuola, W. A. 1991. Cowpea plant architecture in relation to infestation and damage by the legume pod borer Maruca testulalis Geyer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) – 1: effect of canopy structure and pod position. Insect Science Application, 12 (1/2/3): 193-199.
Asiwe, J. A. N.; Nokoe, S.; Jackai, L. E. N.; Ewete, F. K. 2005. Does varying cowpea spacing provide better protection against cowpea pests, Crop Protection, 24 (5): 465- 471.
Abdullahi, M. M.; Ibrahim, S. K. 2014. Assessment of the effect of time, synthetic and botanical insecticides spray regimes on the abundance of predators in cowpea production in Kebbi State of Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, 7 (5): 87-95.
SAS 2000. SAS Users Guide; version 606, Cary, NC: SAS Institute.
Ajao, F. O.; Osipita, A. A.; Lawal, O. I. 2016. Effect of plant spacing on abundance of major insect pests of cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and crop yield. [Abstract]. Journal of Organic Agriculture and Environment, 4 (1).
Yusuf, A. U.; Zakari, F. S. 2016. Influence of plant spacing on insect pest infestation and yield of some cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties in Kano, Nigeria. [Abstract]. Journal of Organic Agricultureand Environment. 4 (1).
Rauf, F. M.; Sardar, A. 2011. Effect of crude seed extract of some indigenous plants for the control of legume pod borer (Maruca vitrata F.) on country bean. Bangladesh Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 36 (1): 41-50.
Malgwi, A. M.; Hamman, S. I. 2013. Comparative efficacy of three plant extract as possible bio-pesticides and Cypermethrin on insect pests of cowpea and its yield in Yola, Nigeria. A poster presentation at the 4th International conference of BIOPESTICIDES tagged BIOCICON, 2013 at Tamil Nadu, India. Held on the 28-30th November 2013.
Malgwi, A. M.; Onu, J. I. 2004. Insect pests of cowpea and groundnut in Gerei Local Government, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Entomology, 21 (1): 137-151.
Waiganjo, M. M.; Waturu, C. N.; Mureithi, Muriuki, J. M., Kamau, J., J. and Munene, R. (in press). Use of entomopathogenic fungi and neem bio-pesticides for Brassica pests control and conservation of their natural Enemies.
Tanzubil, P. B. 1991. The control of insect pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) with neem (Azadirachta indica) in Northern Ghana. Tropical Pest Management, 37 (3): 216-217.
Oparaeke, A. M.1997. Evaluation of comparative efficacy of some plant powders for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on stored cowpea. Master’s thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. 105 pp.
Dike, M. C.; Mshelia G. B. 1997. Laboratory assessment of the efficacy of Eucalyptus leaf powders in the control of Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. on stored cowpea.
Javaid, S.; Dadson, R. B.; Hashem, F. M.; Joshi, J. M.; Arthur, L. A. 2004. Effect of spray applications, sowing dates and cultivar resistance on insect pests of cowpea in Delmarva Region of United State. [Abstract]. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 26 (3): 57-68. https://doi.org/10.1300/J064v26n0307.
Sokamè, B. M.; Tounou A. K.; Datinon, B.; Dannon, E. A.; Agboton, C.; Srinivasan, R.; Pittendrigh, B. R.; Tamò M. 2015. Combined activity of Maruca vitrata multi-nucleopolyhedrovirus MaviMNPV), and oil from neem, Azadirachta indica Juss and Jatropha curcas L., for the control of cowpea pests. Crop Protection, 72: 150-157.
Nathan, S. Kalaivani, S., K., 2006. Combined effects of azadirachtin and nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltNPV) on Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae. Biological Control, 39: 96-104.
Browse journals by subject