Volume 1, Issue 3, November 2016, Page: 27-33
Antimicrobial Potentials of Parkia clappertoniana Jacq, Boswellia dalzielli Hutch and Carica papaya L. Ethanolic Extract on Multi- drug Resistant Diarrheal salmonallae and shigellae Bacteria
Maryam Sani Lawal, Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Abdulsalami Mohammed Sani, Department of Biological Sciences, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria
Denwe Samuel Dangmwan, Department of Biological Sciences, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna, Nigeria
Usman Yahaya, Trial Afforestation Research Station, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN), Kaduna, Nigeria
Received: Sep. 9, 2016;       Accepted: Sep. 22, 2016;       Published: Oct. 14, 2016
DOI: 10.11648/j.bmb.20160103.11      View  2619      Downloads  103
Medicinal plants constitute the major component of traditional medicine practiced worldwide due to the economic viability, accessibility, and ancestral experience. Three medicinal plants (Boswelllia dalzielli Hutch, Carica papaya L. and Parkia clappertoniana Jacq) used locally in diarrheal treatment were investigated. This study was carried on isolated and confirmed strains of multi-drug resistant isolates of salmonallae and shigellae bacteria isolated from diarrheal patients in kaduna metropolis, Nigeria. The antidiarrheal activity of the three plant extracts against multidrug resistant strains of Shigella and Salmonella was performed by agar well diffusion method using standard guidelines. The findings indicated that Boswelllia dalzielli, Carica papaya and Parkia clappertoniana had growth inhibitory effect against the tested bacteria. Ethanolic extract of Boswelllia dalzielli exhibited the highest inhibitory effect at 100mg/ml concentration on both Salmonella and Shigella isolates. When the results were statistically analyzed using Duncan's multiple range test (P<0.05), the highest efficacy was recorded with the ethanol extracts of Boswelllia dalzielli (26.00 ± 1.00). On the basis of these findings, it can be assumed that ethanol extracts of Boswelllia dalzielli, Carica papaya and Parkia clappertoniana could be potential sources for antidiarrheal drugs.
Diarrhea, Multidrug Resistance, Medicinal Plants
To cite this article
Maryam Sani Lawal, Abdulsalami Mohammed Sani, Denwe Samuel Dangmwan, Usman Yahaya, Antimicrobial Potentials of Parkia clappertoniana Jacq, Boswellia dalzielli Hutch and Carica papaya L. Ethanolic Extract on Multi- drug Resistant Diarrheal salmonallae and shigellae Bacteria, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Vol. 1, No. 3, 2016, pp. 27-33. doi: 10.11648/j.bmb.20160103.11
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Bangar, R., Mamatha, B. and Indira B. (2011). A novel treatment approach towards Emerging Multidrug Resistant Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causing acute/persistent diarrhea using medicinal plant extracts. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2 (1): 1-9.
Ahmad, I. and Beg, A. Z (2001). Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant human pathogens. Journal of Ethnopharmacol 74 (2): 113-23.
Hancock R. E., Nijnik A. and Philpott DJ (2012). Modulating immunity as a therapy for bacterial infections. Nat Rev Microbiol; 10(4): 243-54.
Mandal, S., Deb Mandal, M., and Pal, N. K. (2010). Synergistic anti-taphylococcus aureus activity of amoxicillin in combination with Emblica officinalis and Nymphae odorata extracts. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 3: 711-714.
Newman DJ, Cragg GM, Snader KM. (2003). Natural Products as sources of new drugs over the period 1981-2002. Journal of Natural Products., 66: 1022-1037.
Palombo EA. (2006). Phytochemicalsfrom traditional medicinal plants used in the treatment of diarrhoea: modes of action and effects on intestinal function. Phytotherapy, 20(9): 717–724.
Barry A. L. and Thornsberry C. (1991). Susceptibility tests: Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 5th ed. Washinghton: America Society for Microbiology.
Odebiyi A. and Sofowora A. E. (1990). Phytochemical screening of Nigerian medicinal plants. Part III. Lloydia, 41: 234-246.
Trease, G. E, and Evans, M. C. (1983). Textbook of Pharmacognosy (12th ed.) London: Bailiere, Tindal. Pp. 343-383.
Aneja K. R. (2007). Experiments in Microbiology, Plant Pathology and Biotechnology. Pp 547-554.
Bauer A, Kirby W. M. J., Sherris C. and Truck M. (1966). Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standard single disc method. Am. Journal of Clinical. Pathology., 44: 493.
Mitscher L. A, Leu R., Bathala M. S., Wu W. and Beal J. L. (1972). Antimicrobial agents from higher plants. Introduction, rational and methodology. Uoydia 35. 157-166.
DubMandal, M. (2005). Experiments on exploration of environmental bacteria degrading a pesticide used in agriculture. Thesis, University of Jadavpur.
Mache A., Mengistu Y. and Cowley S. (1997). "Shigella serogroups identified from adult diarrhoeal out-patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: antibiotic resistance and plasmid profile analysis." East Africa Medical Journal, 74 (3): 179- 182.
Asrat D. (2008). "Shigella and Salmonella serogroups and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in Ethiopia." East Mediterranean Health Journal., 14 (4): 760-767
Sharma R, Sharma CL. and Kapoor B. (2005). "Antibacterial resistance: Current problems and possible solutions." Indian. Journal of Medical Science, (59): 120-129.
Khatun F., Faruque A. S., Koeck J. L., Olliaro P., Millet P., Paris N., Malek M. A., Salam M. A. and Luby S. (2011). "Changing species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella over a 29-year period (1980-2008)." Epidemiology and Infections, 139 (3): 446-452.
Banso, A and Adeyemo, S. O. (2007). Evaluation of antimicrobial properties of tannins isolated from Dichrostachys cinerea. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6 (15): 1785.
Doughari, J. H., Elmahmood, A. M. and Manzara, (2007). S. African Journal of Microbiology Research pp. 037-041.
Browse journals by subject