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The ACE 2 G8790A and IL-22 Gene Polymorphisms and their Association with Susceptibility to COVID-19 in Yaounde, Cameroon

Received: 4 August 2023    Accepted: 21 August 2023    Published: 8 September 2023
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Abstract

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm, and uses envelope spike projections as a key to enter to human cells with the receptor. Host susceptibility upon exposure to the virus might be as a result of genetic polymorphisms observed on genes that encode for molecules in the immune system such as ACE 2, as well as IL-22 which influences the immune response. This study was aimed at investigating the association between the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of ACE2 G8970A and IL-22 (rs1179521) with COVID-19 susceptibility in Yaounde, Cameroon. A case-control study was performed on 331 conveniently collected blood samples, spotted on Whartman N° 3-filter paper from which DNA was extracted by the chelex-100 DNA extraction method. Genotyping of the ACE2 G8970A and IL-22 SNPs were performed using Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The Chi-square test (X2) was used to establish associations. A P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. The most predominant genotype for ACE2 G8790A, was the homozygous wild type GG genotype (75.23%, 249/331) with no homozygous mutant (AA genotype) observed amongst the study participants, whereas for IL-22 rs1179251, it was the heterozygous GC (47.43%, 157/331). The mutant C allele for IL-22 rs1179251 was most predominant (58%). In the same manner, the wild type G allele for ACE 2 was predominant (88%). No statistical significance was found in the gene and genotype frequencies of ACE2 G8790A and IL-22 rs1179251 between the COVID-19 infected group and healthy controls. The GG genotype for the IL-22 rs1179251 was a protective factor against the presentation of clinical features of COVID-19 (OR=0.430; P=0.003) whereas, the C allele was a risk factor (OR=2.324; P=0.003). In conclusion, no association was found between the SNPs of ACE2 G8790A and IL-22 rs1179251, and COVID-19, but an association was found between the SNP of IL-22 rs1179251 and COVID-19 clinical features. The combined SNPs of ACE2 G86790A and IL-22 rs1179251, showed statistical significance between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups when the wildtype allele (G) for ACE2 G8790A and the mutant allele (C) for IL-22 rs1179251 were combined amongst study participants, with participants possessing the resultant genotype (GC), 2 times likely to present clinical features of COVID-19 (GC; OR=2.324, P=0.003).

Published in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Volume 8, Issue 2)
DOI 10.11648/j.bmb.20230802.12
Page(s) 29-36
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

ACE2, IL-22, COVID-19, Susceptibility, Gene Polymorphism, Immune Response

References
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  • APA Style

    Calvino Fomboh Tah, Akindeh Mbuh Nji, Jean Paul Kengne Chedjou, Lesley Ngum Ngum, Carine Nguefeu Nkenfou Tchinda, et al. (2023). The ACE 2 G8790A and IL-22 Gene Polymorphisms and their Association with Susceptibility to COVID-19 in Yaounde, Cameroon. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 8(2), 29-36. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.bmb.20230802.12

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    ACS Style

    Calvino Fomboh Tah; Akindeh Mbuh Nji; Jean Paul Kengne Chedjou; Lesley Ngum Ngum; Carine Nguefeu Nkenfou Tchinda, et al. The ACE 2 G8790A and IL-22 Gene Polymorphisms and their Association with Susceptibility to COVID-19 in Yaounde, Cameroon. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2023, 8(2), 29-36. doi: 10.11648/j.bmb.20230802.12

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    Calvino Fomboh Tah, Akindeh Mbuh Nji, Jean Paul Kengne Chedjou, Lesley Ngum Ngum, Carine Nguefeu Nkenfou Tchinda, et al. The ACE 2 G8790A and IL-22 Gene Polymorphisms and their Association with Susceptibility to COVID-19 in Yaounde, Cameroon. Biochem Mol Biol. 2023;8(2):29-36. doi: 10.11648/j.bmb.20230802.12

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  • @article{10.11648/j.bmb.20230802.12,
      author = {Calvino Fomboh Tah and Akindeh Mbuh Nji and Jean Paul Kengne Chedjou and Lesley Ngum Ngum and Carine Nguefeu Nkenfou Tchinda and Rhoda Bongshe Laban and Cyrille Mbanwi Mbu’u and MacDonald Bin Eric and Palmer Masumbe Netongo and Tatiana Tchakote Wami and Wilfried Olivier Ngandjeu Tchamdjeu and Marie Claire Vernyuy Fonyuy and Wilfred Fon Mbacham},
      title = {The ACE 2 G8790A and IL-22 Gene Polymorphisms and their Association with Susceptibility to COVID-19 in Yaounde, Cameroon},
      journal = {Biochemistry and Molecular Biology},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {29-36},
      doi = {10.11648/j.bmb.20230802.12},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.bmb.20230802.12},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.bmb.20230802.12},
      abstract = {Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm, and uses envelope spike projections as a key to enter to human cells with the receptor. Host susceptibility upon exposure to the virus might be as a result of genetic polymorphisms observed on genes that encode for molecules in the immune system such as ACE 2, as well as IL-22 which influences the immune response. This study was aimed at investigating the association between the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of ACE2 G8970A and IL-22 (rs1179521) with COVID-19 susceptibility in Yaounde, Cameroon. A case-control study was performed on 331 conveniently collected blood samples, spotted on Whartman N° 3-filter paper from which DNA was extracted by the chelex-100 DNA extraction method. Genotyping of the ACE2 G8970A and IL-22 SNPs were performed using Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The Chi-square test (X2) was used to establish associations. A P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. The most predominant genotype for ACE2 G8790A, was the homozygous wild type GG genotype (75.23%, 249/331) with no homozygous mutant (AA genotype) observed amongst the study participants, whereas for IL-22 rs1179251, it was the heterozygous GC (47.43%, 157/331). The mutant C allele for IL-22 rs1179251 was most predominant (58%). In the same manner, the wild type G allele for ACE 2 was predominant (88%). No statistical significance was found in the gene and genotype frequencies of ACE2 G8790A and IL-22 rs1179251 between the COVID-19 infected group and healthy controls. The GG genotype for the IL-22 rs1179251 was a protective factor against the presentation of clinical features of COVID-19 (OR=0.430; P=0.003) whereas, the C allele was a risk factor (OR=2.324; P=0.003). In conclusion, no association was found between the SNPs of ACE2 G8790A and IL-22 rs1179251, and COVID-19, but an association was found between the SNP of IL-22 rs1179251 and COVID-19 clinical features. The combined SNPs of ACE2 G86790A and IL-22 rs1179251, showed statistical significance between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups when the wildtype allele (G) for ACE2 G8790A and the mutant allele (C) for IL-22 rs1179251 were combined amongst study participants, with participants possessing the resultant genotype (GC), 2 times likely to present clinical features of COVID-19 (GC; OR=2.324, P=0.003).},
     year = {2023}
    }
    

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  • TY  - JOUR
    T1  - The ACE 2 G8790A and IL-22 Gene Polymorphisms and their Association with Susceptibility to COVID-19 in Yaounde, Cameroon
    AU  - Calvino Fomboh Tah
    AU  - Akindeh Mbuh Nji
    AU  - Jean Paul Kengne Chedjou
    AU  - Lesley Ngum Ngum
    AU  - Carine Nguefeu Nkenfou Tchinda
    AU  - Rhoda Bongshe Laban
    AU  - Cyrille Mbanwi Mbu’u
    AU  - MacDonald Bin Eric
    AU  - Palmer Masumbe Netongo
    AU  - Tatiana Tchakote Wami
    AU  - Wilfried Olivier Ngandjeu Tchamdjeu
    AU  - Marie Claire Vernyuy Fonyuy
    AU  - Wilfred Fon Mbacham
    Y1  - 2023/09/08
    PY  - 2023
    N1  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.bmb.20230802.12
    DO  - 10.11648/j.bmb.20230802.12
    T2  - Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    JF  - Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    JO  - Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    SP  - 29
    EP  - 36
    PB  - Science Publishing Group
    SN  - 2575-5048
    UR  - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.bmb.20230802.12
    AB  - Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm, and uses envelope spike projections as a key to enter to human cells with the receptor. Host susceptibility upon exposure to the virus might be as a result of genetic polymorphisms observed on genes that encode for molecules in the immune system such as ACE 2, as well as IL-22 which influences the immune response. This study was aimed at investigating the association between the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of ACE2 G8970A and IL-22 (rs1179521) with COVID-19 susceptibility in Yaounde, Cameroon. A case-control study was performed on 331 conveniently collected blood samples, spotted on Whartman N° 3-filter paper from which DNA was extracted by the chelex-100 DNA extraction method. Genotyping of the ACE2 G8970A and IL-22 SNPs were performed using Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The Chi-square test (X2) was used to establish associations. A P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. The most predominant genotype for ACE2 G8790A, was the homozygous wild type GG genotype (75.23%, 249/331) with no homozygous mutant (AA genotype) observed amongst the study participants, whereas for IL-22 rs1179251, it was the heterozygous GC (47.43%, 157/331). The mutant C allele for IL-22 rs1179251 was most predominant (58%). In the same manner, the wild type G allele for ACE 2 was predominant (88%). No statistical significance was found in the gene and genotype frequencies of ACE2 G8790A and IL-22 rs1179251 between the COVID-19 infected group and healthy controls. The GG genotype for the IL-22 rs1179251 was a protective factor against the presentation of clinical features of COVID-19 (OR=0.430; P=0.003) whereas, the C allele was a risk factor (OR=2.324; P=0.003). In conclusion, no association was found between the SNPs of ACE2 G8790A and IL-22 rs1179251, and COVID-19, but an association was found between the SNP of IL-22 rs1179251 and COVID-19 clinical features. The combined SNPs of ACE2 G86790A and IL-22 rs1179251, showed statistical significance between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups when the wildtype allele (G) for ACE2 G8790A and the mutant allele (C) for IL-22 rs1179251 were combined amongst study participants, with participants possessing the resultant genotype (GC), 2 times likely to present clinical features of COVID-19 (GC; OR=2.324, P=0.003).
    VL  - 8
    IS  - 2
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Biotechnology Center, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon; Fobang Institutes for Innovations in Science and Technology, Yaounde, Cameroon

  • Biotechnology Center, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon; Fobang Institutes for Innovations in Science and Technology, Yaounde, Cameroon

  • Biotechnology Center, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon; Fobang Institutes for Innovations in Science and Technology, Yaounde, Cameroon

  • Biotechnology Center, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Science, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon; Institute of Medicine and Medicinal Plants Studies, Yaounde, Cameroon

  • Biotechnology Center, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon

  • Biotechnology Center, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon

  • Biotechnology Center, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon; Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon; Fobang Institutes for Innovations in Science and Technology, Yaounde, Cameroon

  • Biotechnology Center, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Science, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon

  • Biotechnology Center, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon

  • Biotechnology Center, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon

  • Biotechnology Center, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon

  • Biotechnology Center, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon; Strateos, 458 Carlton Court, South San Francisco, United States of America

  • Biotechnology Center, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Science, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon; Fobang Institutes for Innovations in Science and Technology, Yaounde, Cameroon

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